Penicillium crustosum is common in food and feeds with typical green-blue sporulation. It is a food-borne ubiquitous fungal species, frequently isolated from nuts, meat, cheese, feeds mainly corn, vegetables, pomaceous and stone fruits. It is also common in the soil rhizosphere of vegetables. Penicillium crustosum produces many volatile and non-volatile metabolites. The most characteristic are penitrems, viridicatins, terrestric acid and roquefortine C.
Penicillium crustosum has been studied mainly in the effects and intoxication of animals as it is commonly found in feeds.
Penicillium crustosum is a group 1 species of the 36 species of molds genetically identified in an index called ERMI; an acronym for Environmental Relative Moldiness Index that uses qualitative and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses for the identification of fungal species. PCR is basically the identification of mold species by DNA sequencing and is useful for identifying toxic species from water damage. More information on ERMI testing.
Typical Areas Found
The mould fungus Penicillium crustosum occurs relatively frequently in food and animal fodder stored in temperate conditions.
Mycotoxins Produced by Penicillium crustosum
P. crustosum produces several metabolites mainly penitrems, viridicatins, terrestric acid and roquefortine C. They are capable of neurotoxic effects, neurological disease, cellular damage, and substantial effect on GABAA receptors in the brain specifically Penitrem A.
This mold produces powerful neurotoxins, for example penitrem A, which causes symptoms that are difficult to distinguish from those of other neurological diseases. Penitrem A is capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier and new research has unveiled the mechanisms behind the neurological effects of the toxin.
Dr. Angel Moldes-Anaya has found that penitrem A has a substantial effect on GABAA receptors in the brain. GABAA receptors are the major therapeutic target of tranquilisers (diazepam) and anesthetics (barbiturates). Penitrem A may have a tranquilising effect on one part of the brain and a cramp-inducing effect on other parts. Moldes has revealed that oxidative stress can be related to the pathological changes found in animals exposed to penitrems, since these toxins increase the production of free radicals that can damage tissue.
Peer Reviewed Study for Penicillium crustosum
To be added soon after review.